How Marangoni Drying Produces Superior Surface Conditioning for Wafer Processing

In the final step of silicon wafer processing, wafers often have to be cleaned, rinsed, and dried. They must be free of any contamination or water marks. Contamination in silicon wafers leads to defects in the next processing steps or to high failure as the impurities negatively impacts their quality. IPA drying using the Marangoni drying effect results to dry silicon wafer surfaces without leaving any residues or water marks.

Modutek’s standalone IPA vapor dryer is ideal for this drying procedure. There, the IPA vapor is introduced at the top of the drying tank. The Marangoni drying effect takes place — since the IPA has a lower tension surface than water, it introduces a surface tension gradient where it interfaces with the water on the wafer surface. As a result, the water flows away from the surface of the wafer, leaving it completely clean and dry, with no watermarks whatsoever. The departing water, meanwhile, carries the impurities or particles that are suspended within it.

Modutek’s IPA vapor dryer consists of a wide cabinet built of polypropylene construction which is fitted with Teflon (including its valves and tubes). Operation can be controlled by the menu on the touch screen. The dryer options include PVC construction, a manual lid, and a quick dump feature. Modutek can also customize the dryer to meet customer specifications.

Modutek’s IPA vapor dryer is cost-effective and can be incorporated in a wet bench process without the need to add drying transfer steps. Read our complete article “How Marangoni Drying Produces Superior Surface Conditioning for Wafer Processing” to learn more about Modutek’s Marangoni drying. You may also contact us at if you would like additional information.

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